Cryoinjury has an osmotic effect on the cells as well as causing intra- and extra-cellular ice formation, which can have effects such as altering the native conformation of proteins. Cells sustain cryoinjury each time they cross an intermediate temperature zone from -15 to -60°C, first during the cryopreservation process and again at thawing.

Negative effects

  • Cellular membrane disruption
  • Cryopreservation can cause single and double DNA breaks
  • Reduced cell attachment in culture
  • Reduction in phase I and II activities


XenoTech’s unique approach measures each pool’s characterisation before and after pooling, for a double measure of quality control.
Also, XenoTech's patent-pending, single freeze process provides the highest enzymatic activity possible by minimising the additional cryoinjury caused by a second freeze required by conventional pooling methods.